Face Reconstruction

Face is an important part of our identity. It is the most visible part of our body, and can not be hidden underneath a clothing. A facial deformity, whether following an injury or disease, can be terrible for a patient. It causes insecurity, embarrassment and unhappiness for those who suffer from it. Reconstructive surgery of the face is performed to restore the patient's appearance. He / she can regain self-esteem and look forward to his / her life with confidence once again.

Face reconstruction surgery is a satisfying aspect of practice for both the patient as well as the surgeon. Face has many definite landmarks. Reconstructing wounds of the face without distorting these landmarks requires delicacy, finesse and precision. All cases need to be individualized. Wounds over the face can vary in size, shape, depth and location. The plan for reconstruction varies depending upon all these parameters.

Nose Reconstruction
Reconstructing the nose to an almost natural shape is an exciting  challenge for reconstructive plastic surgeons. Nose is the most important structure for facial identity and appearance. Treatments are usually performed for:
1. Trauma / Injury to the nose.
2. Previous surgery (rhinoplasty).
3. Cancer surgery leading to nasal defect.
4. Congenital (nose deformed from birth).
For reconstructing the nose, we may have to perform surgeries singly, or in multiple stages. The patient's own bone and cartilage can be taken from another part of the body to build up the structural framework of the nose. They are covered with skin and mucous membrane from surrounding areas or from different areas to produce the inner lining and the outer cover. For best results, patience is the key. At the end of it, even a badly deformed nose can be reconstructed to produce an almost natural appearance.

Lip Reconstruction
Lips may be destroyed by injury or by cancer. Smaller defects in the lip may be closed by direct suturing or by small local flaps. Large defects need transferring of the surrounding tissues, or transfer of a part of the opposite lip, to reconstruct the defect and produce a natural looking result. A good reconstruction not only improves the appearance, but also ensures that the essential functions of the lips, namely, eating, speaking, expression, feeling, etc are adequately maintained.

Facial Trauma (Cranio-maxillo-facial injuries)
Facial trauma, also known as cranio-maxillo-facial injuries, is caused by a blunt or penetrating injury to the forehead, cheek, nose, mouth and jaws. In serious injuries, the underlying facial bones are broken (fractures). Fractures can occur in the cheek bone, eye sockets, palate and both the jaw bones - leading to problems in seeing, breathing, speaking or swallowing. Treatment of these fractures require adequate repositioning of the bones, followed by fixation with wires or plates. Jaws may be kept shut during and after the operation. Patient may have liquid or semi-solid foods during the initial period, to allow the fractures to heal well. Face may remain swollen for a few days after the operation, which gradually gets better within about a week.

Facial Reanimation Surgery

Following an injury or disease, facial paralysis can happen, resulting in problems in eye closure, speech and chewing; resulting in an odd look and an obvious imbalance in facial features. Facial reanimation is a surgical process of correcting these abnormality. Numerous procedures can be performed for correction. Muscle transfer involves moving tendons and muscles from another part of the body to the face. Nerve grafting involves moving nerves from another part, like hypoglossal nerve of the tongue or facial nerve branches from the opposite part of the face, to the affected side of the face. Prosthetics and fat grafting may be used to correct the appearance of the face.


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